By M. L. West
The Indo-Europeans, audio system of the prehistoric mother or father language from which so much eu and a few Asiatic languages are descended, most likely lived at the Eurasian steppes a few 5 or 6 thousand years in the past. Martin West investigates their conventional mythologies, religions, and poetries, and issues to components of universal background. In The East Face of Helicon (1997), West confirmed the level to which Homeric and different early Greek poetry was once prompted by way of close to jap traditions, usually non-Indo-European. His new e-book offers a foil to that paintings by means of opting for parts of extra historic, Indo-European background within the Greek fabric. subject matters lined contain the prestige of poets and poetry in Indo-European societies; meter, variety, and diction; gods and different supernatural beings, from Father Sky and mom Earth to the Sun-god and his appealing daughter, the Thunder-god and different elemental deities, and earthly orders comparable to Nymphs and Elves; the kinds of hymns, prayers, and incantations; conceptions concerning the global, its beginning, mankind, demise, and destiny; the ideology of reputation and of immortalization via poetry; the typology of the king and the hero; the hero as warrior, and the conventions of conflict narrative.
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Additional info for Indo-European Poetry and Myth
6); and some different minor ﬁgures. fifty eight In Greece we've got Alastor, most likely ‘Unforgetter’, the demon that pursues these tainted by way of blood-guilt, and lots of titles of Zeus that concentrate on a unmarried functionality, akin to Αγ τωρ, Α αντ ρ, Αστραπα´τα (Homeric στεροπητ ), Αφ κτωρ, Γενν τωρ, Εκτωρ, Μαιµακτ ρ, Σωτ ρ. fifty nine Jupiter too has such titles in lots: Cultor, Defensor, Depulsor, Inventor, Iutor, display screen, Pistor, Stator, Victor, and others. there are lots of Roman godlets of similar shape. whilst the Flamen played the sacrum cereale for Tellus and Ceres, he invoked Vervactor, Reparator, Imporcitor, Insitor, Obarator, Occator, Sarritor, Subruncinator, Messor, Convector, Conditor, and Promitor, all controlling diﬀerent levels of the rural cycle. 60 there's no unmarried identify between all of the above that may be attributed even to a overdue section of Indo-European. yet we may possibly think that this system of constructing divine names is going again to early occasions. fifty seven Usener (1896), 279; Schrader (1909), 35–7. On such ‘Sondergötter’ see Usener, 75–9 (Roman), 108–15 (Baltic), 122–77 (Greek); Oldenberg (1917), sixty three, 258 (Indian). fifty eight On them all see Macdonell (1898), 115–18. fifty nine For those and others see of Zeus’ titles in RE xA. 253–376. 60 Fabius Pictor fr. 6 in E. Seckel–B. Kuebler, Iurisprudentiae Anteiustinianae Reliquiae, i. 6 (Leipzig 1908); Usener (1896), seventy six. three. Gods and Goddesses 137 Many gods’ names comprise the suﬃx *-nos or (feminine) *-neh2 > -na¯. They comprise deities attested within the moment millennium , the Hittite storm-god Tarhunna (from tarh- ‘overcome, vanquish’) and the Indic Varuna ˘ (from var(-u-)˘ ‘cover, protect’). within the ecu languages the suﬃx used to be additional to present nouns to suggest ‘controller of’, ‘lord of’. It made not just divine names but in addition human titles like Greek κο ρανο ‘army chief’ (see p. 449), Latin domi-nus, tribu¯-nus, Gothic þiudans ‘king’ (< *teuto-nos: *teuta¯ ‘people’), outdated English dryhten, outdated Norse drottinn ‘lord’ (< *drukti-nos: *drukti- ‘armed retinue’). sixty one As for deities, we may well consult with the Greek Ouranos < *Worsanos, ‘lord of rain’, and Helena < *Swelena¯, ‘mistress of sun’ (p. 231); the Illyrian Menzanas, ‘lord of horses’; the Roman Neptu¯nus, ‘lord of waters’ (p. 276), Volca¯nus, ‘lord of ﬁre-glare’ (p. 268), Silva¯nus, ‘lord of woods’, Portu¯nus, ‘lord of ports’, Tiberı¯nus, ‘lord of the Tiber’, and goddesses equivalent to Fortu¯na, Bello¯na, Po¯mo¯na; the Germanic Woden/Odin < *Wo¯ð anaz, ‘lord of frenzy’; the Gallic Epona, goddess of horses, Nemetona, goddess of groves, Ritona Pritona, goddess of shopping for and promoting, and plenty of others;62 the Lithuanian thunder-god Perkunas, ‘lord of oaks’, Ve˜linas, ‘lord of the lifeless’ (modern Vélnias, the Devil), and Zˇemýna, Zˇemy˜ne˙, ‘mistress of the Earth’. Perkunas, as we will see in bankruptcy 6, has a few declare to Indo-European antiquity, yet for the remainder, as relating to the agent-noun formations, it's the variety that's inherited instead of the person representatives of it. within the extra easterly elements of the Indo-European quarter the belief ‘lord/lady of’ will be expressed extra explicitly by using the note *potis, female *potnih2.